Thursday, March 16, 2017

UNIT 1: ɯ̀r “Spring” Lesson 3: “Quska”


Aims: By the end of the lesson, students should be able to talk about Ket household items using locative postpositions and expressions for “to (not) be there”

Story: You have just made friends with a family of Ket people living on the shores of the Yenisei river.  You met them while they were setting up their spring encampment.  Now that their birchbark teepee is set up, they invite you in.  Inside the air is smoky and warm.  You can distinguish a few important items belonging to the family, not least among them the family’s guardian spirit dolls.

U:: əkŋna qu's qà aqtas!
Kətdum: E’.  Quska usam.
U:: Quska akus
usaŋ?
Kətdum: Quska etna
hojaŋ usaŋ.
U:: Kire hojaŋ akus?
Kətdum: Kire lә:q haj sujad.  Ture Dahani
ŋda qa’d, haj kire ap usans.
U:: Tune akus?
Kətdum
: Tune ətna allel haj daŋgols.  Uk quska allel tam daŋgols usaŋ?
U:: Ap quska allel tam daŋgols bənsaŋ.

Grammar
1.      Locative: Ket locative suffix is produced by adding the suffix -ka to a noun, regardless of gender or number.  Therefore, we can make constructions like quska “in the tent” or hɯssejka “in the forest”.
2.      Stating the presence of nouns: Ket uses the phrase-final usaŋ and bənsaŋ to state presence or lack of a noun.  Thus, we can produce sentences like Quska tɯ'n usaŋ/bənsaŋ “In the tent there is/is not a kettle.”
3.      We ask and answer “where” questions by putting “where?” and “here/there” after the noun.  So, I can say “Ap təgol biseŋ?  Uk təgol kiseŋ/qaséŋ” “Where is my tall birchbark container?  Your tall birchbark container is here/over there”

Vocabulary
Household Items
Allel
Female guardian spirit doll
Daŋgols
Male guardian spirit doll (less common)
Hojaŋ
Things
Lә:q
Furs, Pelts
Sujad
Clothing
Oŋnes
Bed (made of skins)
Usans
Blanket (literally “warming one”)
Təjol
Tall Birchbark Container
ɯgedj
Wide Birchbark Container
Kojel
Pan
Tɯ’n
Kettle
Sɯ’k
Kneading Trough
Bo’q
Fire
U:l
Water
Adjectives
U:s
Warm
A:ŋ
Hot
Ta’j
Cold
Other
Tam
or
                                 
Exercises:
Translate:
1.      Uk kəla biseŋ?  Bu se:ska. ___________________________________

2.      Buŋna kə'd biseŋ?  Bu:ŋ hɯssejqa. _______________________________________

3.      Quska allel bənsaŋ. ____________________________________

4.      Qare u:l usam. __________________________________________

5.      Tɯnka a:ŋ u:l usaŋ. __________________________________________

6.      Qu’s hɯssejka? Bə:n, qu’s se:ska. _______________________________________

7.      Qare uk sɯ’k? Bə:n, qane ap amda sɯ’k.______________________________________________________

8.      Kire usans u:sam. ________________________________

Answer.

9.      Kətdum haj Dahaniŋda quska akus usaŋ? _____________________________________________


10.   Quska tajam tam usam? _________________________________________

Sunday, January 22, 2017

UNIT 1: ɯ̀r "Spring" Lesson 2: Utis De'ŋ


UNIT 1: ɯ̀r “Spring”
Lesson 2: “Ap Utis De’ŋ”
Aim: By the end of the lesson students should be able to produce interrogative bitse/besa/bilaŋsaŋ with demonstrative and possessive pronouns to ask about and introduce family members.
Story: After introducing himself, your new friend Dahaniŋ introduces the different members of his family.  He has a wife, a daughter, a baby son, and a dog.

U:: Tune de'ŋ bilaŋsaŋ?
Dahaniŋ: Bu:ŋ ap de'ŋ.  Kire ap qi:m haj ap hɯ'p.  Ap Qimdi i: Kətdum.  Ap hɯbda i: Dumil.
U:: Ture qimdɯl besa?
Dahaniŋ: Bu: ap huˀn.  Bud i: Liblja.
(a dog shows up)
U:: Ti:v-o!*  Kir uk ti:p?
Dahaniŋ: E', tur ap ti:p.  Bud i: Imtis.
*Note /p/à [v] shift between vowels

Another important note: Although I use traditional Ket names here, this practice has ceased among the modern Ket.  Ket children these days have Russian names, and only the oldest generation continues to have Ket names.  Also, here I have one conversant talking directly to the dog (“tiv-o!”).  We’re not sure if this was done in traditional Ket culture in the same way that it’s done in ours.

Grammar

1.      PLURALS IN KET: Most plurals in Ket are made by adding -ŋ (inanimate) or -n (animate) to the end of a noun.  A lot of irregulars exist, for example ke't>de'ŋ "person>people" or bu:>bu:ŋ "s/he>they".  If a noun's plural is irregular, it will be included in the vocabulary entry for easy reference.
2.      GENITIVE CASE: In Ket, we can make a construction roughly equivalent to English “-‘s” by adding da/di/na to, respectively, masculine, feminine/neuter, and animate plural nouns.  In the example above we see ap qimdi i: “my wife’s name” and ap hɯbda i: “my son’s name”.
3.      GENDER IN KET: Ket has three grammatical genders which determine how it is used in a sentence: masculine, feminine, and neuter.  Often feminine and neuter nouns are inflected the same way, but not always, so it's important to double-check.  Ket has no way of telling from the sound of a word if it is masculine or feminine, so we just have to memorize.  A good rule of thumb is: trees and economically important animals are masculine.  Rivers and economically unimportant animals are feminine.  Most other inanimate objects are neuter.  If a noun's gender cannot be discerned using the above rule, the gender is included in the vocabulary entry.

Masculine
Feminine/Neuter
Plural
English
Bitse?
Besa?
Bilaŋsaŋ?
Who?
Kir
Kire
Kine
This/these
Tur
Ture
Tune
That/those (nearby)
Qar
Qare
Qane
That/those (distant)

Vocabulary
Nouns Pertaining to Family
(Note: Ket familial terms are extremely intricate, with lots of synonyms.  These are just the most common words for members of the immediate family.)
Ke’t
English
De'ŋ
People (ap de'ŋ “my people” used to mean “my family”).  Plural of ke’t “person, man”
Utis de'ŋ
Family; literally “nearby people”
Adeŋ
Relatives, family (literally “bones”)
Qi:m
Woman, wife, female (for people)
Hi’g
Male (for people)
Te:t
Husband
Dɯ:l (pl. kәˀd)
Child.  Therefore, qimdɯ:l “girl” or higdɯ:l “boy”
Ti:p (pl. ta:p)
Dog
O:p
Father, dad
A:m
Mother, mom
Ovaŋ
Parents (emphasis on Dad)
Aman
Parents (emphasis on Mom)
Bisep
Sibling (prefix hi’g or qi:m).  To emphasize a full, rather than half, sibling, preface with aŋ “hot”, e.g. aŋ higbisep “full brother”
Qi:b
Grandpa
Qima
Grandma
Ket Names
Dahaniŋ (m)
King Eagle, Golden Eagle
Kətdum (f)
Winter bird
Dumil (m)
Birdsong
Liblja
Ruff (bird)
Imtis (dog’s name)
Pebble

Exercise
Translate:
1.      Tur bitse? ____________________________

2.      Kire besa? ______________________________

3.      Kine bilaŋsaŋ? _____________________________

4.      Ap i: Kətdum.  Bud i: Dahaniŋ.  Bu: ap te:t. _________________________________________

5.      Buŋna tipda i: Imtis.  Imtis aqta ti:p! ___________________________________________

6.      Kire uk utis de'ŋna qu’s? ______________________________________________

7.      Bә:n, kire ap bәjda qu’s. _____________________________________________

8.      Tur higdɯ:lda i: bila? ________________________________________________

9.      Bu:ŋ ap ovaŋ. ____________________________________________

10.  Kire kәˀdna je’ŋ Kətdum haj Dumil. _____________________________________


Write a short passage introducing your family.

Friday, November 25, 2016

UNIT 1: ɯ̀r “Spring”, Lesson 1: Uk i: bila?



Aim: By the end of the lesson, students should be able to ask and answer “what is your/his/her name?” and introduce themselves.  Additionally, they should be able ask and answer “kire/ture/qare akus?” for a few simple neuter nouns.

Story: Imagine you have been taken back in time to before the 20th century, when Ket was used as a primary means of communication along the middle Yenisei river and its tributaries.  As you reflect on the coolness of the Ket language and culture, you float down the river in a small boat made of birchbark.  The Yenisei river has just begun to flow after its winter freeze, and there are still pieces of ice floating in the water.  The weather is sunny but cold, and there is still snow on the ground.  As you travel down the river you meet a friendly man on the shore.  He is putting up some sort of structure on the riverside.  He greets you in Ket. 
Dialog: ????: Bǝ’j-o:! (addressing a man) Kǝla-a:! (addressing a woman)
You: Bǝ’j-o:!  Uk i: bila?
????: Ap i: Dahaniŋ.  Uk i: bila?
You: A:p i: __________________.   Ture akus?
Dahaniŋ: Kire ap qu’s.  Ture uk qa’p?
You: E’!

Grammar
1.      VOCATIVE POSTPOSITION: We can call out to our friends by saying their name + o:! (masculine) or a:! (feminine).  If you are calling to a woman who is not in view, you change vocative particle to ə:!
a.       Since Ket has no direct translation to “hello”, we can make a friendly greeting to someone we don’t know by saying bu’j- o:! or kǝla-a:!.  This translates literally to “hey friend!”
2.      INTRODUCTIONS: We can ask someone’s name with U:k i: bila? Or literally, “Your name how?”
3.      DEMONSTRATIVES: We can ask what something is by saying Kire/ture akus? Or literally “This/that what?”

Vocabulary:
Nouns
Bǝ’j m.
Friend (male)
Kǝla f.
Friend (female)
I:
Name
Qu’s
Birchbark teepee
Qa’p

Birchbark boat
Hɯssej
Forest
Se:s
River
Ke’t
Person, man
Pronouns
A:t
I
Ap
My
U:
You
Uk
Your
Bu:
S/he
Bud
His/her
Other
Kire
This
Ture
That (nearby)
Qare
That (far away)
Akus
What
E’
Yes
:n
No

Exercise
Translate:
1.      Uk i: bila? ______________________

2.      Bud i: bila? ______________________

3.      Kire uk qa’b? _________________________

4.      Ture ap qu’s? ________________________________

5.      Kire se:s? ______________________________

6.      Ture hɯssej? ______________________________

7.      How do you greet a woman whose name you don’t know (assuming you can see her)?

8.      How do you greet a man whose name you don’t know?